[5] Fletcher, Valerie, and Lowery S Sims. Lowery Stokes Sims, the former Curator Emerita for the Museum of Arts and Design, even stated that: Lam’s mixed ancestry summarized the history and culture of Cuba, which from the sixteenth through the nineteenth century was dominated by the influx of people from all over the world. Fouchet, Max-Pol. [10] Thus, illustrating once again how Lam integrates elements from all his different heritages to create something new. Wifredo Lam December 8, 1902 – September 11, 1982 The son of a Chinese immigrant and a Congolese slave, Lam grew up in Cuba, and lived amongst Catholic as well as African traditions. “Riding Modernism: Wifredo Lam’s Decenterings.” Nka Journal of Contemporary African Art1997, no. Painted in 1944. [8] Fletcher, Valerie, and Lowery S Sims. Wifredo Lam. Lam, who had spent three years working with the Surrealists in Paris, aimed for The Jungle to convey the haunting consequences of slavery and colonialism for his native island of Cuba. Sculptor Wifredo Lam were born on Monday, birthstone is Turquoise, the seaon was Fall in the Chinese year of Tiger, it is 337 days until Wifredo Lam next birthday. (99 x 70 cm.) The Jungle, above, is the most famous example of his work and displays the merging of European painting tradition in its Cubist perspective yet the masked figures amidst the sugarcane and … [2] Fletcher, Valerie, and Lowery S Sims. “Wifredo Lam: A Sketch.” Callaloo34 (Winter 1988): 91-92. Image courtesy of the lenders and ©2007 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/ADAGP, Paris. “Syncretism and Syntax in the Art of Wifredo Lam.” 169. Wifredo Lam, The Jungle (La Jungla), gouache on paper mounted on canvas, 1943, Museum of Modern Art, New York. https://doi.org/10.1215/10757163-6-7-1-16. La vie est un songe, Filipacchi 1974 Cuba, 1902–23. ... Lam painted Omi Obini in 1943, the same year he made The Jungle, a work with which it has an important formal relationship and … In 1943, Wifredo Lam was in the midst of re-acquainting himself with his native Cuba, especially its population of African descent. [20] Fuente, Alejandro de la, and Valdés Elio Rodríguez. Wifredo Lam died September 11, 1982, in Paris. Pittsburgh, PA: Mattress Factory, 2010. He studied in Spain under the same teacher as Salvador Dalí and became a friend of Picasso after moving to Paris in 1938. A digest of articles from the Lotus Fruit Take a look, https://doi.org/10.1215/10757163-6-7-1-16. “Wifredo Lam: A Sketch.” Callaloo34 (Winter 1988): 91-92. These practices represent some of the many ways that “Africans and their descendants participated actively in the process of creolization and mixture” by creating “new cultures and nationalities in the Americas”. Although Lam described the Bergman piece as “one of the preparations for La Jungle ” (letter to Edwin Bergman of April 1956), to which it bears a close general resemblance, there is no exact counterpart to its subject in the larger work. 6–7 (January 1997): 16–21 . Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian, 1992. Republished in Richards, Paulette. A native Cuban, Lam hailed from Chinese, European, Indian, and mixed-African descent, and he was deeply influenced by African spiritual practices such as Santeria. Wifredo Oscar de la Concepción Lam y Castilla was born December 8, 1902, in Sagua la Grande, Cuba. Interview de Wifredo Lam dans Wifredo Lam. Reading a survey on Caribbean art that I found at the public library, Wilfredo Lam came up at least half a dozen times before I even got to the section on Afro-Cubanism. “Syncretism and Syntax in the Art of Wifredo Lam.” 169. Through historical contextualizations of Wifredo Lam’s The Jungle (1943) within the Paris and New York art scenes of the late 1930s and early 1940s, I address the questions of intelligibility and relative value in the international reception of exotic cultural forms. [6] There are also elements, such as the sugar canes, that truly embody his mixed ancestry by referring “not only to Cuba’s pervasive plantations” and their connection to the slave trade from Africa, but “to Lam’s Chinese ancestry taken root in Caribbean soil” as well.[7]. We created Smarthistory to provide students around the world with the highest-quality educational resources for art and cultural heritage—for free. Wifredo Lam was a twentieth century Cuban artist and one of the most influential ones in Latin American Modernism. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. These “brilliant colors of the tropics” featured a “high-key palette of violets, blues, greens, yellows, oranges, and reds” that really conveyed the “jewel-like brilliance” of the Cuban foliage. “Syncretism and Syntax in the Art of Wifredo Lam.” 181. Wifredo Lam, The Jungle (detail) The Jungle, currently on display at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, has an undeniable presence within the gallery: the cluster of enigmatic faces, limbs, and sugarcane crowd a canvas that is nearly an 8 foot square. Unlike most New World countries, which had won independence during the early and middle years of the nineteenth century, Cubra gained autonomy from Spain only in 1902, the year Lam was born. ... Cuban artist of Asian ancestry who was best known for his 1943 work "The Jungle." From a young age, Lam had always been exposed, at least on a cultural sense, to Santería. At least the name was familiar. [17] Sato, Paula. by Susan Edwards. Wifredo Lam, The Jungle, Gouache on paper mounted on canvas, 1943, The Museum of Modern Art. Pittsburgh, PA: Mattress Factory, 2010. Queloides: Race and Racism in Cuban Contemporary Art = Raza y Racismo En El Arte Cubano contemporáneo, 20. With paintings like La Jungla (1943), Wifredo Lam reinvents the idea of Africa, the Carribean, and most importantly, the Black Atlantic, outside of its physical space and definitions. Wifredo Lam. Lam and Matta, for instance, “both embraced Surrealism as a means of liberation for the individual spirit. However, Lam recognized how culturally relevant Santería was in Afro-Carribean culture and the need to reclaim its origin in “the beliefs and practices of the Yoruba people from Nigeria”. “Syncretism and Syntax in the Art of Wifredo Lam.” 167. The Jungle: Where Worlds Collide. Young Wifredo Lam grew up in Sagua La Grande, Cuba. Through La Jungla (1943)’s signature incorporation of elements from Santería, European Cubism and Surrealism, and West and Central Africa, Lam successfully manages to redefine the Modernism of the time by appealing to a cultural hybrid that embodied the multiculturalism of the Black Atlantic. Lam is remembered by his Surrealist-like and Cubist-like paintings that embodied his signature style: a sort-of hybrid between these two movements; a new style that did not perfectly fit into Western categories. “Syncretism and Syntax in the Art of Wifredo Lam.” 183. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1976, 188-189. https://login.avoserv2.library.fordham.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.avoserv2.library.fordham.edu/docview/2303529921?accountid=10932. The Jungle, which is considered Lam's masterpiece, is exemplary of the artist's mature style. Lam’s ethnic and cultural heritage included the African diaspora in Cuba, and when he returned to the island in the 1940s, he became reengaged … . [4] Just as how Lam grew up as part of several communities, so did his art. 1. [1] Mosquera, Gerardo. Located in the upper right corner of the painting, the viewer can observe the only non-natural element one can distinguish, a pair of scissors. The ancient African faces that peer out of the Cuban jungle in his painting are universal and old. [3], As stated above, Wifredo Lam was someone who “physically embodied and actively experienced the multicultural heritages of the New World” not only in his art, but in his life. Nowadays, as a result from the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA)’s latest efforts to fight recent critiques of it being a space for “white, male, and nationalist” art, these two works can now be admired in the David Geffen Galleries dedicated to Out of War art. Wifredo Lam: his birthday, what he did before fame, his family life, fun trivia facts, popularity rankings, and more. The dense composition creates a claustrophobic feeling while the forms remain difficult to differentiate. Together these elements obliquely address the history of slavery in colonial Cuba. The frutas bomba, specifically, “serve as visual puns for breasts” that emphasize “the integration of the female form with the landscape — a long-standing symbolism in both European and African traditions”. 2). Around this time, Lam moved to Cuba to create paintings that would move him “closer to his own culture instead of moving away” and this is the period in his life where his most renowned work, La Jungla (1943) (Fig. The work, “intended to communicate a psychic state,” Lam said, depicts a group of figures with crescentshaped faces that recall African or Pacific Islander masks, against a background of vertical, striated poles suggesting Cuban sugarcane fields. Wifredo Lam The Jungle (La Jungla) 1943. [3] Fletcher, Valerie, and Lowery S Sims. 5.0 out of 5 stars 1 rating. 1. “Syncretism and Syntax in the Art of Wifredo Lam.” 217. They are architectural columns, they are trees, rooted and straight, but narrow. We believe art has the power to transform lives and to build understanding across cultures. Yet white Euroeans continued to dominate the upper levels of society and the economy, partly because Cuba remained staunchly colonialist. Among those interested in the idea of Négritude was Wifredo Lam (1902–1982), an Afro-Cuban painter. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1976, 188-189. Annunciation Told Like an Origin Story : Notes on Henry Ossawa Tanner, The Symbolic Interpretation of One of the Most Enigmatic Masterpieces, What You Should Know About the History of Collage, Physicality as an Aesthetic: Encountering Ramesh Mario Nithiyendran, Building Bridges: The Top Lots from New York’s Fall Imps & Mods, The Woman Was Lit: Artist Lilla Cabot Perry. [19], Just as how the Black Atlantic is not restricted to one nationality or location, neither is Lam’s impact. The Jungle, of late on exhibit at the Museum of Modern Art based in the New York City, has an indisputable existence within the gallery; the limbs, the cluster of enigmatic faces, and the sugarcane group a canvas that is about 8 foot square. In 1968, Lam was included in the itinerant exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, Dada, Surrealism and Their Heritage. [8] La Jungla (1943) is a large (239.4 x 229.9 cm) gouache on paper art piece mounted on canvas, that features vibrant colors that resembled the tropical flora Lam observed in Cuba. In 1923, Lam moved […] Estimate: €1,300 - €1,600 Description: Etching with aquatint Wifredo Lam (1902 - 1982) - Cuban artist Prints by Wifredo Lam fetch up to 2,500 Euros at international auctions Signed lower right in pencil "Wifredo" Numbered lower left in pencil "3/99" Overall dimensions, framed: 65 x 84.5 cm Good condition This etching with aquatint by Wifredo Lam was made in 1972. Cite this page as: Dr. Doris Maria-Reina Bravo, "Wilfredo Lam, Featured | Art that brings U.S. history to life, At-Risk Cultural Heritage Education Series. [20] This can be seen in the work of Cuban composer, Elio Rodríguez, who is directly inspired by La Jungla (1943) and the way Lam “turns it into a landscape replete with the symbolism of Caribbean sexuality and lasciviousness”. As “the first vision ever of modern art from the standpoint of Africa within Latin America”, one cannot analyze the many ways that La Jungla (1943) deals with decolonization without considering the many ways that this painting continues to do so even after the peak of the Afro-Cubans movement.[22]. Wifredo Lam (Cuban 1902-1982) Untitled signed and dated 'Wifredo Lam 1944' (lower right) gouache on paper 39 x 27½ in. “Syncretism and Syntax in the Art of Wifredo Lam.” 175. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. [9] Fletcher, Valerie, and Lowery S Sims. Lam created a new narrative within the Cuban imagination: rooted in the island’s complex history, his work was an antidote to the picturesque frivolity that mired the nation in stereotype, The Jungle is both enigmatic and enchanting, and has inspired generations of viewers to liberate their imaginations. Inspired by and in contact with some of the most renowned artists of the 20th century, Lam melded his influences and created a unique style, which was ultimately characterized by the prominence of hybrid figures. [21] Fuente, Alejandro de la, Valdés Elio Rodríguez, and Dennys Matos. Wifredo Lam was born on December 8, 1902, in Cuba. “Syncretism and Syntax in the Art of Wifredo Lam.” In Crosscurrents of Modernism: Four Latin American Pioneers: Diego Rivera, Joaquin Torres-Garcia, Wilfredo Lam, Matta = Intercambios Del Modernismo, Cuatro Precursores Latinoamericanos, 167. Wifredo Lam, in his painting, The Jungle, portrays at least four figures resembling the bamboo stalks they stand between. “Syncretism and Syntax in the Art of Wifredo Lam.” 169. Lam created a new narrative within the Cuban imagination: rooted in the island’s complex history, his work was an antidote to the picturesque frivolity that mired the nation in stereotype, The Jungle is both enigmatic and enchanting, and has inspired generations of viewers to liberate their imaginations. According to the acclaimed Cuban art historian and curator, Gerardo Mosquera, these scissors can be interpreted as “a turning and a synthesis that might be endorsed by modernity, thus creating a non-Western space within the Western tradition, decentralizing it, transforming and de-Europeanizing it”. Wifredo Lam could break Diego Rivera's record at auctions with a work that vindicates Afro-Cuban roots. From twentieth century Cuba to the prestigious galleries of New York’s MoMA and the well-known Queloides exhibition in the twenty-first century, the way La Jungla (1943) confronts dislocation and assimilation remains relevant and inspiration to artists and members of the African diaspora everywhere. [15] The femme cheval appeals to the Santería practice of possesions by the orishas (“divinities or spirits who act as intermediaries between humans and the forces of nature”) while also invoking a feminine energy that is key to Lam’s Négritude and the cultural syncretism of La Jungla (1943). (123.5 x 108.8 cm.) If you know of the artist Wifredo Lam (1902–82), then it is likely that you are familiar with his most famous painting, The Jungle, 1943.For many years the painting was installed on the ground floor of the Museum of Modern Art, New York (MoMA) opposite the entrance to the administrative offices and library, on the way to the coatroom. [7] Fletcher, Valerie, and Lowery S Sims. FUN FACTS. The exhibition Is organized by the Patrick and Beatrice Haggerty Museum of Art, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Wifredo Lam Cuban artist of Asian ancestry who was best known for his 1943 work “The Jungle.” Also excelled in sculpture, ceramics, and printmaking. [16]The image of the femme cheval and the image of the Santería priestess act “not only as protectors and disseminators of Afro-Cuban culture, but also as models of empowerment over and against their white exploiters and colonizers”. Lam’s bold painting is a game of perception. The bold painting is simply a perception game. Ce tableau, réalisé dans les années 1942-43, a été considéré, par certains critiques de l´époque, comme le premier manifeste plastique du tiers-monde parce qu´il était d´accord Lam gave his figures masklike faces, some similar to horse heads, and eroticized them … [18] Fletcher, Valerie. Born in the small town of Sagua la Grande at the turn of the century, his father was a Chinese immigrant and his mother a descendent of both Spanish conquistadors and African slaves. In 1916, his family moved to Havana, where he attended the Escuela de Bellas Artes. [18] In its own way, Breton’s Surrealism inspired the deconstructive character seen in two remarkable examples of Latin American Modernism: Lam’s La Jungla (1943) and Matta’s Here, Sir Fire, Eat! This merging of human, animal, and plant forms is described as magical metamorphosis. “Modernism from Afro-America: Wilfredo Lam.” In Beyond the Fantastic, 127. The identity that Lam invokes with this work is something outside of hegemonic definitions that is autochthonous to the Black Atlantic and remains until this day as part of our contemporary and global society. The figures' elongated limbs lack definition, while much emphasis is placed on their larg… Wifredo Lam (1902-1982) Femme cheval signed and dated 'Wifredo Lam 1950' (lower right) oil on canvas 48 5/8 x 42 7/8 in. [5] Likewise, from his Central and West African heritage, it was the “pointed oval or heart-shaped face” of sculptures across the Congo Basin and Nigeria and the “‘coffee bean’ type” eyes that inspired Lam. Lam’s distinctive style and exploration of Afro-Cuban visual culture, alongside his knowledge of European modernism, made a hug… Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. “Introduction” In Crosscurrents of Modernism: Four Latin American Pioneers: Diego Rivera, Joaquin Torres-Garcia, Wilfredo Lam, Matta = Intercambios Del Modernismo, Cuatro Precursores Latinoamericanos, 17. “I knew I was running the risk of not being understood. [10] Fletcher, Valerie, and Lowery S Sims. He was the eighth child born to Lam-Yam―born in Canton around 1820, an immigrant to the Americas in 1860―and to Ana Serafina Catilla―born in 1862 in Cuba of mixed African and Spanish ancestry. “In the hard-nosed “La Jungla” (“The Jungle,” 1943), Wifredo Lam, as proto-Afrofuturist environmentalist, depicts natural hierarchy being surpassed by vitalist horizontality. Republished in Richards, Paulette. “Syncretism and Syntax in the Art of Wifredo Lam.” 167. [6] Fletcher, Valerie, and Lowery S Sims. [14] Mosquera, Gerardo. … Yet each interpreted it differently, the one [Lam] toward Afro-Caribbean imagery, the other [Matta] toward an exploration of the psyche in a broader humanist context”. [2] Lam would later come to the realization that this was in part due to these categories being created by hegemonic European culture whose heritage did not resemble his own or that of other Afro-Latinos. This same cultural hybridity that is so characteristic of Lam’s life and art, can also be seen in La Jungla (1943) through the “bamboo-like stalks of wild cane”, the oval-like faces, and the clear Cubist influence, among other elements. [11] Mosquera, Gerardo. “Modernism from Afro-America: Wilfredo Lam.” In Beyond the Fantastic, 130. [13] Fletcher, Valerie, and Lowery S Sims. In 1972, an entire room was dedicated to the artist at the 36 th Venice Biennale. Wifredo Lam, Study for “The Jungle,” 1943. [4] Fletcher, Valerie, and Lowery S Sims. https://login.avoserv2.library.fordham.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.avoserv2.library.fordham.edu/docview/2303529921?accountid=10932. [12] Mosquera, Gerardo. Before Fame. Wifredo Lam was born in Sagua la Grande, Cuba, on December 8, 1902. His father was Chinese and his mother was a Cuban woman of mixed Spanish and African heritage. 1), was born. He continues to exhibit and travel as a citizen of the world through the end of his life. The Jungle, 1943 by Wifredo Lam, Art Print Poster 14" x 11" Brand: Bruce McGaw Graphics. “Wifredo Lam, the Shango Priestess, and the Femme Cheval.” Journal of International Women’s Studies 17 (June 2016): 92. http://vc.bridgew.edu/jiws/vol17/iss3/8. ... Ortíz was a key figure in the Afro-Cuban movement and was the first to point out the significance of the foliage in Lam's The Jungle, a foliage similar to that seen in this 1944 drawing. The indigenous populace had been virtually eradicated by European colonists, who in turn imported slaves from western Africa for the labor-intensive cultivation of sugar cane. The polymorphism, for which Lam is well known, juxtaposes aspects of humans, animals, and plants, creating monstrous, hybrid creatures. [17], Even though Lam’s Négritude was, naturally, very autochthonous to Lam’s practice, this desire to use visual art to deconstruct the European perspectives of the time can also be identified in the work of other Latin American Modernists, for instance: Diego Rivera, Joaquin Torres-Garcia, and Roberto Matta. Product description The Jungle, 1943 is a licensed reproduction that was printed on Premium Heavy Stock Paper which captures all of the vivid colors and details of the original. In this painting, Lam explores a jazzy hybrid that incorporates Picasso-esque Africanized Cubism, shattering planar congruity. Not on view. Lam uses this same strategy in an image like The Jungle, but in his work there is also a personal component. Wifredo Lam: Modernity’s Trojan Horse. Something that, similar to the Black Atlantic, is not exclusively African, Chinese, European, or creole, but something that exists as a result of the cross-breeding of all these different cultures. [22] Mosquera, Gerardo. During the early 1920s, he exhibited at the Salón de la Asociación de Pintores y Escultores in Havana. Similar to Lam’s practice, the way Queloides deals with “the subjects of race, discrimination, and racism…is not confined to the island”. He depicted figures with crescent-shaped faces, recalling African or Pacific Islander masks, against a background of Cuban sugarcane fields. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian, 1992. [19] Cotter, Holland. [14] In La Jungla (1943), Lam depicts Santería through the recurring image of the femme cheval (or “horse-woman”). Also excelled in sculpture, ceramics, and printmaking. “I wanted with all my heart to paint the drama of my country, but by thoroughly expressing the black spirit, the beauty of the plastic art of the blacks,” he once said. Wifredo Lam was a Cuban artist who sought to portray and revive the enduring Afro-Cuban spirit and culture. MOCO SILVA MIKLOS / Passages de Paris Édition Spéciale (2009) 3-11 4 Résumé : Cet article a l´objectif de faire une brève analyse du tableau “La Jungle”, la plus fameuse oeuvre de Wifredo Lam. [11], Another way that Lam uses the figures in La Jungla (1943) to decolonize the ideas surrounding it, is by incorporating elements of Santería as key subjects in the painting. An interconnected world is not as recent as we think. “MoMA Reshapes Image with ‘Modernism Plus’: Review.” New York Times, Oct 11, 2019, Late Edition (East Coast). We believe that the brilliant histories of art belong to everyone, no matter their background. [16] Fletcher, Valerie, and Lowery S Sims. [21] Lam’s Négritude not only redefined identity outside of the European hegemony during the 1940s, but has continued to do so since the early 2000s. Moving from the background and towards the actual figures depicted in La Jungla (1943), Lam integrates elements of multiculturalism through more than just the repeated usage of frutas bomba and the sugar canes. “Racism: Parody and Postcommunism” In Queloides: Race and Racism in Cuban Contemporary Art = Raza y Racismo En El Arte Cubano contemporáneo, 67. [1]Through the incorporation of elements from Santería, European Cubism and Surrealism, and West and Central Africa, Wifredo Lam’s La Jungla (1943) illustrates Lam’s Négritude and rethinks Afro-Caribbean identity in the Black Atlantic outside of its Western definition. “Modernism from Afro-America: Wilfredo Lam.” In Beyond the Fantastic, 124. 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After Lam met Césairé in 1941, he became fascinated by the need for the African diaspora to reclaim the original African meaning in Cubism — a meaning that Cubism actively ignored by appropriating African figures as trivial and primitivist adornments. Fouchet, Max-Pol. Foto: Wifredo-Lam.-Galería-Montenegro. “Syncretism and Syntax in the Art of Wifredo Lam.” 171. In fact, growing up in the Caribbean during the early twentieth century as the “son of a Chinese father and a European-African mother”, Lam was, since his childhood, familiar with the struggle of not fitting into one category. Wifredo Lam was a Cuban-born artist, best known for his large scale paintings which reference modernist aesthetics and Afro-Cuban imagery to explore themes of social injustice, spirituality and rebirth. [15] Fletcher, Valerie, and Lowery S Sims. A major early 20th-century painter, Wifredo Lam fused elements of Cubism and Surrealism with African culture in paintings that were exhibited alongside those of Pablo Picasso and other Cubists and Fauvists.A native Cuban, Lam hailed from Chinese, European, Indian, and mixed-African descent, and he was deeply influenced by African spiritual practices such as Santeria. “Riding Modernism: Wifredo Lam’s Decenterings.” 20. Oil on paper mounted on canvas, Collection of Sergio and Christine Delgado. (1942) (Fig. [12] It is necessary to highlight that regardless of how exposed Lam was to Santería, he was never officially part of the religion and only participated in certain rituals as a spectator. [9] The background displays a jungle filled with jewel-like sugar canes and frutas bomba (papayas) that both morph to become part of the figures in the painting in a way that is directly influenced by André Breton’s Surrealism . From the 1930s until the 1950s, several members of the African diaspora turned to Aimé Césairé’s Négritude movement in order to decolonize Black contributions in the Western world. Growing up in Sagua la Grande, Cuba, his mother’s hometown, Lam was surrounded by his godmother, a priestess in the chapter of Santa Barbara (Shango), as well as by other African customs from the area. The Jungle (1943) depicts hybrid male and female figures, their bodies blending human, animal, and plant imagery within a crowded jungle filled with sugarcane and banana leaves. [13], In order for Lam’s Modernism to successfully become a rejection of the hegemonic European Modernism, cultural and religious practices like Cuban Santería and Haitian Voodoo, could not be ignored. December 08 Horoscope. The meaning of the name Lam: Forest. For instance, from the dominant Western traditions of the time, it was the “fanciful yet spiritual visions of Hieronymus Bosch and El Greco” as well as the “simplified forms and vivid colors of Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso” that inspired Lam. “Syncretism and Syntax in the Art of Wifredo Lam.” 183. Before the slave trade ceased in 1886, nearly three-quarters of a million Africans had been brought to Cuba, and consequently the island’s society acquired that heritage. Painted in 1950 Provenance Private collection, Havana. Levels of Society and the economy, partly because Cuba remained staunchly.... Url=Https: //search-proquest-com.avoserv2.library.fordham.edu/docview/2303529921? accountid=10932 difficult to differentiate Sergio and Christine Delgado ©2007 Artists Rights Society ARS! Address the history of slavery in colonial Cuba ) 1943 Cuba, especially its population of African descent for individual. 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